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高功率高效率开口波导阵列天线设计与实验

魏溢宏 李相强 苏奕宇 张健穹 王庆峰

魏溢宏, 李相强, 苏奕宇, 等. 高功率高效率开口波导阵列天线设计与实验[J]. 强激光与粒子束, 2024, 36: 073005. doi: 10.11884/HPLPB202436.230421
引用本文: 魏溢宏, 李相强, 苏奕宇, 等. 高功率高效率开口波导阵列天线设计与实验[J]. 强激光与粒子束, 2024, 36: 073005. doi: 10.11884/HPLPB202436.230421
Wei Yihong, Li Xiangqiang, Su Yiyu, et al. Design and experiment of open waveguide array antenna with high power and high efficiency[J]. High Power Laser and Particle Beams, 2024, 36: 073005. doi: 10.11884/HPLPB202436.230421
Citation: Wei Yihong, Li Xiangqiang, Su Yiyu, et al. Design and experiment of open waveguide array antenna with high power and high efficiency[J]. High Power Laser and Particle Beams, 2024, 36: 073005. doi: 10.11884/HPLPB202436.230421

高功率高效率开口波导阵列天线设计与实验

doi: 10.11884/HPLPB202436.230421
基金项目: 四川省科技厅重点研发项目(2022YFG0248)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    魏溢宏,1031652772@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    李相强,xiangqiang_li@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TN82

Design and experiment of open waveguide array antenna with high power and high efficiency

  • 摘要: 针对研究具有高功率容量、高效率和低剖面特性的阵列天线的应用需求,提出并设计了一种高功率容量高效率开口波导阵列天线。该天线由紧凑型1分16路波导功率分配网络、4×4矩形开口波导单元和陶瓷密封罩组成,通过设计开口波导尺寸、在开口波导表面加载E面金属栅条,使得辐射口面的电场分布更为均匀,提高了单元辐射增益。采用阶梯匹配结构实现了波导功率分配网络输出端口到开口波导单元口面的尺寸变换,同时提高了系统的阻抗带宽。加载在阵面上的陶瓷罩可使天线内部处于真空状态,提高了天线的功率容量。针对X波段高功率阵列天线的应用需求,优化设计了一个中心频率为9.5 GHz的16单元开口波导阵列,仿真结果表明其在9.25~9.65 GHz范围内口径效率均大于90%,反射系数均小于−13.9 dB。对天线进行了加工测试,测试得到的天线反射曲线和中心频率下的辐射方向图与仿真结果吻合良好,中心频率下天线增益为21.7 dBi。天线整体剖面高度为中心频率处波长的2倍,仿真得到的真空中功率容量为40 MW,具有高功率容量、高效率和低剖面的特点。
  • 图  1  高功率容量高效率开口波导阵列天线结构示意图

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of open waveguide array with high power capacity and high efficiency

    图  2  口径分布方向图

    Figure  2.  Pattern of aperture distribution

    图  3  开口波导单元模型结构图

    Figure  3.  Model of open waveguide unit cell

    图  4  阶梯过渡段主要参数优化

    Figure  4.  Main parameters optimization of stepped transition section

    图  5  栅条参数对增益和反射系数的分析

    Figure  5.  Gain and reflection analysis of bar parameters

    图  6  开口波导单元加载栅条前后对比

    Figure  6.  Comparisons of bar influence on open waveguide unit cell

    图  7  ET分支与耦合腔仿真模型及S参数曲线

    Figure  7.  Simulation model and S-parameter curve of ET branch and coupled cavity

    图  8  波导功分网络与S参数曲线

    Figure  8.  Waveguide power division network and S-parameter curve

    图  9  开口波导阵列模型与仿真结果图

    Figure  9.  Model and simulation results of open waveguide array

    图  10  开口波导阵列电场分布图

    Figure  10.  Electric field distribution of open waveguide array

    图  11  反射特性测试场景与阵列实物图

    Figure  11.  Reflection characteristic testing scenario and physical array

    图  12  实测与仿真反射特性曲线对比

    Figure  12.  Comparison of reflection characteristic curves

    图  13  辐射特性测试场景

    Figure  13.  Radiation characteristic testing scenario

    图  14  9.5 GHz方向图实测结果

    Figure  14.  9.5 GHz radiation pattern measurement result

    表  1  口径分布与方向图特性

    Table  1.   Characteristics of aperture distribution and pattern

    aperture distribution $ {E_{\text{H}}} $ $ {{\boldsymbol{f}}_x} $ θH D
    cosine $ {E_0}\cos \Bigg(\dfrac{{\pi x}}{a}\Bigg) $ $ 2\pi \dfrac{{\cos ({k_x}a/2)}}{{{\pi ^2} - {{({k_x}a)}^2}}}{E_0} $ 11.3 $ \dfrac{3\ 651}{\theta_{\text{E}}} $
    dual-cosine $ {E_1}\left| {\sin \Bigg(\dfrac{{\pi x}}{{a/2}}\Bigg)} \right| $ $ 8\pi a\dfrac{{{{\cos }^2}({k_x}a/4)}}{{4{\pi ^2} - {{({k_x}a)}^2}}}{E_1} $ 8.8 $ \dfrac{4\ 688}{\theta_{\text{E}}} $
    uniform $ {E_2} $ $ a\dfrac{{\sin \left( {{k_x}a/2} \right)}}{{{k_x}a/2}}{E_2} $ 8.4 $ \dfrac{4\ 911}{\theta_{\text{E}}} $
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  开口波导单元各项参数

    Table  2.   Parameters of open waveguide unit cell

    a/mm a1/mm a2/mm ah/mm b/mm b1/mm b2/mm
    17.00 29.48 35.00 38.50 5.45 9.00 12.8
    bh/mm l1/mm l2/mm l3/mm t/mm d/mm
    21.31 7.00 3.90 15.87 1.50 2.13
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  阵列天线性能对比

    Table  3.   Performance comparison of array antennas

    reference type profile height/λ gain/dBi unit quantity aperture efficiency/% simulated or measured
    [8] waveguide slot fed horn array 3.4 21.2 4×4 94 simulated
    [9] composite horn array 3.2 42 64×8 80 simulated
    [10] ridged horn array 1.2 38 32×32 67 simulated
    [11] ridge gap waveguide fed horn array 1.8 26.5 4×4 85 simulated
    [12] mixed waveguide fed Gaussian horn array 20 43 64×64 50 simulated
    this work open waveguide array 2 22.6 4×4 90 simulated
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-11-30
  • 修回日期:  2024-03-13
  • 录用日期:  2024-02-06
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-04-10
  • 刊出日期:  2024-05-31

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