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基于里德堡原子的无线电技术研究进展

贺青 李栋 谷立 罗思源 贺寓东 李彪 王强

贺青, 李栋, 谷立, 等. 基于里德堡原子的无线电技术研究进展[J]. 强激光与粒子束, 2024, 36: 079001. doi: 10.11884/HPLPB202436.240061
引用本文: 贺青, 李栋, 谷立, 等. 基于里德堡原子的无线电技术研究进展[J]. 强激光与粒子束, 2024, 36: 079001. doi: 10.11884/HPLPB202436.240061
He Qing, Li Dong, Gu Li, et al. Research progress in radio technology based on Rydberg atoms[J]. High Power Laser and Particle Beams, 2024, 36: 079001. doi: 10.11884/HPLPB202436.240061
Citation: He Qing, Li Dong, Gu Li, et al. Research progress in radio technology based on Rydberg atoms[J]. High Power Laser and Particle Beams, 2024, 36: 079001. doi: 10.11884/HPLPB202436.240061

基于里德堡原子的无线电技术研究进展

doi: 10.11884/HPLPB202436.240061
基金项目: 中国工程物理研究院院长基金自立项目(YZJJZL2023054)、电子工程研究所科技创新基金项目(J23-02)、国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目(12104423)、四川省自然科学基金青年基金项目(2024NSFSC1431)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    贺 青,18583852658@163.com

    通讯作者:

    王 强,383703313@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: O43;TN99

Research progress in radio technology based on Rydberg atoms

  • 摘要: 近年来,量子信息技术飞速发展,其中基于里德堡原子的电磁传感器吸引了人们的极大兴趣。里德堡原子是一种处于高能态的原子,因其拥有对外场响应灵敏、具备自校准并直接追溯到国际单位制的测量能力、不受传统天线尺寸效应的影响等特点,十分适合于无线电传感与探测。自2012年Shaffer等突破性地利用里德堡原子的电磁诱导透明效应测量微波电场强度的灵敏度及不确定度均远高于传统微波测量结果之后,近十年来,以里德堡原子超外差测量等新理论和新技术为代表的研究已经实现了对电磁波的频率、极化、相位、强度等多参数的测量,相关工程化的技术也蓬勃发展,有望对传统的无线电技术产生颠覆性的影响。对基于里德堡原子的无线电技术近十年来的研究进展进行综述,从探测原理出发,梳理本领域的发展脉络,并对其未来发展趋势进行展望。
  • 图  1  里德堡原子探测微波电场装置示意图[19]

    Figure  1.  Experimental set-up used for detecting microwave electric field[19]

    图  2  基于EIT-AT的微波探测[19]

    Figure  2.  Microwave detection based on EIT-AT[19]

    图  3  利用马赫-曾德尔干涉仪测量电场实验系统[37]

    Figure  3.  Experimental system for measuring electric field by Mach-Zehnder interferometer[37]

    图  4  原子超外差法中,已知频率和相位的本地信号$ {E}_{\mathrm{L}}\left(t\right) $和待测信号场$ E\mathrm{_s}\left(t\right) $通过原子进行混频[27]

    Figure  4.  In the atomic superheterodyne method, the local signal $ {E}_{\mathrm{L}}\left(t\right) $ with known frequency and phase and the signal field $ E\mathrm{_s}\left(t\right) $ to be measured are mixed by atoms[27]

    图  5  光学重新泵浦能级示意图[43]

    Figure  5.  Schematic diagram of optical repumping energy level[43]

    图  6  利用传统谐振腔实现高灵敏度探测

    Figure  6.  Highly sensitive detection using traditional resonant cavity

    图  7  利用单体(上)和多体系统(下)实现精密测量的对比[48]

    Figure  7.  Comparison of precision measurement using single (top) and many-body system (bottom)[48]

    图  8  华南师范大学利用EIA效应实现微波电场探测的原理示意图[44]

    Figure  8.  Schematic diagram of microwave electric field detection using EIA effect in South China Normal University[44]

    图  9  山西大学团队利用里德堡原子测量K波段微波的实验装置示意图[62]

    Figure  9.  Schematic diagram of experimental device of measuring K-band microwave by Shanxi University team using Rydberg atom[62]

    图  10  里德堡原子系统探测MHz射频无线电波[67]

    Figure  10.  Detection of MHz RF radio waves by Rydberg atomic system[67]

    图  11  Anderson 研究小组集成电极的原子气室探测原理图[73]

    Figure  11.  Schematic diagram of atomic gas chamber detection with integrated electrode of Anderson research group[73]

    图  12  不同碱金属原子的跃迁频率和相应的偶极矩[33]

    Figure  12.  Quasi-continuous transition frequencies and corresponding dipole moments from different alkali atoms[33]

    图  13  Meyer等利用非共振外差技术制备的原子无线电接收机和频谱仪[81]

    Figure  13.  Atomic radio receiver and spectrum analyzer prepared by Meyer et al using non-resonant heterodyne technique[81]

    图  14  微波电场偏振测量[84]

    Figure  14.  Microwave electric field polarization measurement[84]

    图  15  实验中测量的参数A$ \theta $的关系曲线,其中A1A2表示插图中两条谱线的面积,实线为理论结果[14]

    Figure  15.  Relationship between the measured parameters A and $ \mathrm{\theta } $ in the experiment, where A1 and A2 represent the areas of two spectral lines in the graph, with the solid line representing the theoretical results[14]

    图  16  山西大学对射频识别标签散射场测量的实验装置[86]

    Figure  16.  Shanxi University's experimental setup for measuring the scattering field of radio frequency identification (RFID) tag[86]

    图  17  基于里德堡原子混频器测量偏振[88]

    Figure  17.  Measurement of polarization based on Rydberg atomic mixer[88]

    图  18  二维成像结果[90]

    Figure  18.  Two-dimensional imaging results[90]

    图  19  电小范围内基于里德堡原子实现信号接收[93]

    Figure  19.  Using a quantum sensor based on thermal Rydberg atoms to receive data encoded in electromagnetic fields in the extreme electrically small regime[93]

    图  20  NIST利用原子混频器实现相位测量的实验装置图[104]

    Figure  20.  Experimental schematic of NIST using atomic mixer to realize phase measurement[104]

    表  1  里德堡原子主要特点

    Table  1.   The main characteristics of Rydberg atoms

    property n dependence
    binding energy n−2
    energy spacing n−3
    orbital radius n2
    dipole moment n2
    radiative lifetime n3
    polarizability n7
    van der Waals interaction n11
    dipole-dipole interaction n4
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-02-23
  • 修回日期:  2024-04-28
  • 录用日期:  2024-04-28
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-05-11
  • 刊出日期:  2024-05-31

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